ECO Bravo

Blogs on Everything

Home Improvement

windows and doors oshawa
Home Improvement

How to know when your windows and doors need a change?

The purpose of having proper windows and doors has more to do than simply keeping them for their aesthetic appeal. Also, thanks to every changing weather patterns, they are subject to the harshest of weather conditions – rains, snow, summers and winters which also leads to high humidity and excess heating. All of these reasons and more begin to take a toll on your windows and doors, and that is when you know they need to be replaced. And this is where windows and doors company come in.

How do you know when exactly to replace your windows and doors?

Keep in mind that not all doors and windows need to be replaced at the same time. Since they all aren’t exposed to the same amount of elements, it is but obvious that they won’t require replacing at the same time. Windows which are more sheltered tend to last longer that those which are exposed to harsh climatic conditions throughout. Thus, check all your doors and windows, before making an informed decision. However, whenever you do, always hire a windows and doors company in Oshawa.


Some of the common problems to look out for, when thinking of replacing windows are –

  • If there are gaps or spaces that let in air and require sealing on a regular and doors company in oshawa
  • Window frames which are visibly damaged or worn out and look like they require a coat of paint might simply be due to harbouring of pests or termites and the like.
  • In case the opening and closing mechanism of the windows, then they need to be replaced.
  • In case you notice growth of mould, is rest assured that there is more growing inside. Mould tends to possess health risks, which is why you should have them replaced sooner than later.
  • Windows which have a single glass pane tend to a good amount of energy efficiency, and incase you intend on replacing them with windows and doors company in Oshawa be rest assured that you’ll get better insulation.
  • In the case of double-paned windows, if you notice accumilation of dirt and moisture know that they need to be changed.
  • Incase you notice a leak during snow and rainfall, immediately change your windows

Some common factors to consider when looking to replace doors are –

  • Although a coat of varnish or paint sometimes does the work, but you can keep doing that always. After a point of time, they will need to be replaced. When you notice your door loosing its sheen and become dull, change it
  • If you have to put in extra effort to open and shut your door, which is very unlike what it used to be before, maybe your door is crying out for help and needs a change.
  • If you notice your door not lining up properly and you observe a draft, change your door.
  • In case you notice any damage in the door jam, chances are that the frame is in bad shape.

These are some of the key factors to consider and look into, when thinking of changing your doors and windows. And remember that when you do, always consider choosing windows and doors company in Oshawa.

air duct cleaning toronto
Green HomeHome Improvement

Winter is the Best Time to Clean Air Ducts- Why?

During the winter, the air ducts of your house become busier as those work relentlessly to keep your house warm. Therefore, it is quite important to take care of the ducts so that those can be freed from debris and dirt. Whether it is your home or your office, the ducts have to be cleaned during winter as maximum dirt accumulation happens during this time. You can consult professional services of air duct cleaning Toronto in winter have the healthy airflow in your house. Why should you take the best care of the ducts during winter? Read on to know more-

air duct cleaning toronto

  1. It Is Budget-friendly Time

For many households, winter is the most expensive time of the year as the house heating bill becomes an add-on. But consulting air duct cleaning Toronto companies can solve your problem with dirty ducts and help you to stay within your budget. When your ducts are cleaned, the HVAC system of your house will work effectively and the furnace of your house will run less. Thus, staying in a budget can be possible if you clean the ducts of your house and office during winter.

  1. air duct cleaning torontoYou Can Get Better Air Quality

Winter is the time when contamination happens the most. If you have kids and elderly people in your house, they get contaminated by the viruses, bacteria, allergens, pollens, etc. in winter the most. That’s why it is very important to keep the ducts of your house clean. In winter, condensation happens the most and getting fresh air becomes challenging. If the ducts are clean, you can get fresh air at home and stay away from any breathing trouble or diseases, like cough and cold.

  1. Keep Your House Clean

Once you consult the duct cleaning companies they know the importance of keeping your house or office neat and clean. But, if you have an old HVAC system in your house, the vents get more dirt and debris and those soon spread inside the house. That’s why you need to consult the air duct cleaning Toronto to perform a simple vent cleaning service as they can help to keep your space clean. They will just take a single afternoon and you can feel the difference.

air duct cleaning toronto

  1. Vent Cleaning Increases Longevity of Your HVAC Systems

The HVAC systems are quite expensive. Everyone can’t spend a bunch of money on those at regular intervals. So, you must go for professional vent cleaning services, no matter what season it is. Once you get those ducts cleaned up, you can get clean and fresh air inside and that will also keep the devices in the good condition for a long time.

So, here you get why cleaning the ducts of the HVAC system of your house or office in winter is important. Having clean air inside will improve the health of the employees of your office and the members of your family and you can lead a healthy life throughout the year.

commercial window coverings
Home Improvement

Awesome window treatments with no comparision!

Budget Blinds does have the ideal collection to every room on your home, from either a master bedroom in which light control or privacy, were paramount, to something like a kitchen that need an elegant yet useful window therapy! Explore the range of creative styles together with the recent fabrics, textures but also colors. Commercial window coverings have been bringing the best in layout right with your home to over 25 decades.


commercial window coverings

They assume the heart of a home was the kitchen. Whether this is a holiday occurrence, birthday party, or only the get-together of such friends and family, kitchens have such a way of attracting an audience. And as the heart of home exercise, this is no surprise which choosing functional and elegant window therapies could be a challenge. Faux wood blinds but also composite blinds provide added durability but are perfect for rooms with high humidity, such as kitchens. They often recommend cell shades, also recognized as honeycomb colors, which still allow soft, lighting to be an outstanding data protection solution. Try the pleated Roman shades to defend the interior of your kitchen from damaging Ultraviolet rays, which add a stylish, sophisticated design drawl.

Living Room

commercial window coverings

Friends and relatives gather in living room every day, so whenever they see the beautiful storm windows, you would love to hear “wow” from them. As just an interior that is probably the first space, your guests may see, dress up your stuff and make statements of fashion of window covers that match the decor of your living room. They  have the ideal window fashions from craftsmanship-inspired wood shutters to stylish Roman shades which will generate positive comments for coming years. It’s easy to build the look that you have always wished, from blending versatile hues with drapery screens to trying to make a design assertion with the ideal valance.


commercial window coverings

Create the perfect toilet set with communicative, versatile wall coverings without compromising privacy. Because the bathroom was an area of high moisture and temperatures, it can cause several types of window treatments to warp as well as fade. But do not care; we covered you with such a host of lovely solutions of practical style. In your toilet environment, our set of shutters, shades but also blinds is completely at home. The curtains were made of high-quality headrail elements to avoid rusting and our humidity-friendly composite curtains are designed to support fade and warp over moment. Consider combining fabric shades to drapery panels in such a distinctive print or pattern for such an elegant look. As well as cellular shades are yet another common bathroom window therapy as both views but also privacy is available.


commercial window coverings

Each sanctuary needs flattering light, control over privacy and even a sense of fashion. With our exceptional selection of window coverings and designer dialects, turn the bedroom into the ideal retreat for relaxing, quiet sleep. We may not spend the time to upgrade or layout our room as a room that is often neglected because few people use it. Budget Curtains dresses your bedroom to window treatments which give you a great night of sleep from stylish colors and draperies in the newest trends and textiles.  For an additional waterproof membrane but also comfortable napping temperatures, we suggest pairing bedroom drapes to honeycomb colors.

replacing windows
Home Improvement

Great reasons to replace Old Windows in your home this spring

Now, since spring has finally come, many homeowners take full advantage of warmer temperatures as well as milder weather to opened their doors or check things off their winter-long house improvement list. Springtime was the ideal time of the year for a wide range of different home improvements, and if you have been searching for the right time to replace those old windows all over your home, you’ve never had a better time to do otherwise than you are now. If you’re still on the fence, why don’t take a couple of minutes to read through such an article which our professional team has taken the time to put together? In it, we’re working to highlight just a few of the several things which make spring the absolutely best time to remove old windows of your home. The new windows will bring more positivity and health benefits to you.replacement windows

 They Can Boost Your Energy Saving This Coming Summer Season

One of the greatest attractions of investing to your home while replacement windows is the effect they may have on the overall energy efficiency from your home as well as on your monthly utility costs. Every window can cost you around $27 and $111 every year by taking time to displace the old single-pane windows with much more efficient as well as secure double-pane windows this spring. These new and more power-efficient windows would also help you stay more comfortable with your house by doing a better job keeping cold air indoors during the summer and warm air indoors during the winter. With summer rapidly approaching, trying to replace your old windows can go a long way in helping you save your summer cooling payments, and helping you as well as your family is making your home a much more comfortable place.


 Increase Your House Protection

Another main advantage of getting rid of all those old windows all over your home is that doing so, you may actually help raise the level of security your house provide against the elements as well as any bad weather that may come across the location in the coming year. Older windows have not been designed to meet the very same durability standards as new windows that can keep your home vulnerable throughout particularly harsh climate periods. New windows are also useful when filtering out Ultraviolet rays as well as noise from elsewhere in your home. Improve your house’s appeal

If you’re looking for an easy way of increasing your house’s curb appeal, whether you’re looking to sell in a near-future or even just planning to make your house a much more beautiful place, it’s a great way to replace those old windows. New windows could be a good way to help you restructure your house and make it stand out that if that’s what you want from all other homes in your neighborhood. Thus it will be a good decision to change your old window and bring positive vibes to your home.

brampton painters
Home Improvement

Things to Know When Painting Children’s Rooms

When it involves painting child’s rooms, it should sound like fun, however, you will find it’s quite simply selecting a paint color. Painting and decorating is labour, however, with a touch preparation upfront, it will not feel therefore intimidating.

Some recommendations on painting children’s rooms. Have a glance at the following tips from selecting paint colors to finding decoration and accessories to suit their rooms and grow with them.

painters in brampton

  1. Rooms of babies:

New-borns and young babies solely have a black and white vision; therefore, it does not extremely matter what color you decide on once you are making a nursery! It will be you observing the walls as you are attempting to urge them to sleep or feed, therefore choose colors that you just like, that square measure soothing and reposeful to you.

  1. Paint color selection:

Different coloured paints have different effects on people:

Red paint is fanatic and emotional, and yellow, whereas cheerful and energizing is agitative to babies, and each ought to be used with caution and solely as accent colors.

Blue paint is healing and cooling and whereas grey paint promotes thought, it may also cause unhappiness.

  1. Contrasting paint combos:

Combining paint colors is associate degree art. What would possibly look smart on those very little square paint samples, might not go well along on the walls.

Consider consulting with Brampton painters or employees at the paint search on what paint shades go well along or what colors distinction well.

  1. Your child’s opinion matters:

If you’ve got the budget, involve older children within the selection of paint colors and decoration for his or her space.

Allow them to add their own color choices so that they don’t end up disliking it.

  1. Choose colors that grow with your children:

Unless you would like to repaint often, think about selecting paint colors that will grow together with your children. Neutral wall shades with one wall of additional intense color and contrastive woodwork is reworked simply. You will then solely ought to paint elements of their bedchamber to urge a brand-new look as they mature and their tastes and desires amendment.

painters brampton

  1. Room decoration:

Kids space decoration and accessories don’t need to be high-priced. Hang posters, photos or photos on neutral walls. These add color and might simply be updated. Add cushions or a floor covering for a rapid space update too. A new piece of children article of furniture may also add a special look to their space.

  1. Hire a professional painter?

Painting and decorating your child’s bedrooms need preparation and patience to realize an honest end. Be ready for sanding, filling, cleaning, and tape before you even get to a paintbrush! Or you could hire Brampton painters to help choose and do the job for you!

Overall, these tips should help you complete the job pretty easily but if you still find it difficult, consider contacting Brampton painters to help complete the task!


garage door repair ottawa
Home Improvement

Aluminum Garage Doorways in Ottawa

It is safe to say that you are attempting to settle on various materials for your new garage entryway? There are numerous to browse and every one of them offers their very own points of interest. In the event that you need to look at changed materials, continue perusing to find out additional!

Sorts of Garage Doors

Different sorts of garage entryways incorporate wood, aluminum, vinyl-clad and fiberglass doors in Ottawa

Aluminum and fiberglass are the two materials utilized for some garage doors in Ottawa. What are the contrasts between these two kinds of doorways and which one should you use?

Advantages of Aluminum Garage Doors

Aluminum Garage doorways look incredible on current homes and can add one of a kind stunner and character to the outside of any family home and are also easy for garage door repair Ottawa service. Also, these doorways are fantastically low-upkeep! Aluminum garage entryways are too:

  • Corrosion-safe and tough
  • Versatile regarding plan
  • And more

At the point when compared with other metal and wood carport entryways, aluminum entryways are amazingly lightweight (which can decrease odds of mishaps). Aluminum entryways are more water-safe and won’t effectively rust after some time.

Advantages of Fiberglass Garage Doors

Fiberglass is a tough material that is, including doorway establishment. Fiberglass-clad garage entryways have a lovely fiberglass outside that looks like normal wood. They function admirably for homes and some business structures and are:

  • Low-support
  • Energy-proficient
  • Able to help lessen outside clamors

At the point when contrasted with different kinds of carport entryways, fiberglass-clad models are vitality productive and low-support, giving you the presence of delightful wood without the upkeep.  They are definitely easy on garage door repair Ottawa services!

ottawa garage doors repair

Thermal Performance

Superior aluminum windows can meet or surpass vitality productivity benchmarks. Aluminum windows and entryways can without much of a stretch accomplish upgrades in heat gain and heat loss through windows by 60% matching increasingly costly timber and uPVC counterparts.

Lessens Carbon Footprint

On account of a normal gas warmed home in Melbourne, the utilization of aluminum twofold coated windows conveys CO2E proportionate savings of very nearly multiple times that required to deliver the aluminum outlines, just inside the first year.

Over the life of the structure, energy saving exceeds the underlying vitality contribution by well more than multiple times. For homes with electrical heating, or cooling for homes in hot atmospheres, savings keep running into products of near multiple times.

Aluminum and Fiberglass Garage Doors in Ottawa

When taking a look at a garage entryway materials upsides and downsides, everything descends to your one of a kind circumstance. In the event that you need an entryway that is all the more low-support and can help supplement your modern home, think about aluminum. In case you’re keen on a progressively conventional look and vitality proficiency is high on your need list, fiberglass might be the material for you.

Sturdiness and Low Maintenance

The erosion safe characteristics of aluminum give a low upkeep outline and are impervious to enduring under scope of cruel natural conditions. In contrast to numerous different materials, it won’t swell, break, split or twist after some time; guaranteeing an all-encompassing item life.

custom kitchen cabinets mississauga
Home Improvement

Modern Trend versus Traditional Trend In Cabinet

Modern kitchens have been developed from old designs to the latest ones. People go with their own preferences while modeling their kitchen. The traditional kitchen designs show the use of upper cabinets while the modern ones are mostly open shelves. Both the designs have their pros and cons. One should check properly before making a fair selection for his/her dream kitchen designs.

Traditional upper cabinets –

These are the full and well custom kitchen cabinets Mississauga. They are solid-wood style cabinets located in the upper area of a kitchen. It gives your kitchen a classy look with a catch of tradition. There are many pros yet certain cons are there for modeling your kitchen in this style,

Pros –

  • Storage

As it is located in the upper area of the kitchen as an extension of that part of the wall, it will definitely save you some area below. There will be plenty of space for other things which you will be needing on a daily basis. All the kitchen stuff which is not needed too often can be kept hidden in the upper cabinets.

  • Cohesion

The upper cabinets help to create cohesion with all the other kitchen design. As you get to choose the hardware, the color, and the finish as well.

  • Style

This helps a lot when the owner has a soft corner for traditional beauty and style.

kitchen cabinets in mississauga

Cons –

  • As the upper cabinets take some space in the wall area, it makes the kitchen look smaller and less spacious. Also, the room feels a bit darker than it actually is.
  • This style or design is a little expensive, as you need to choose good quality hardware, custom kitchen cabinets Mississauga offers you all with premium quality.


Modern open shelves –

one open unique shelf or design of shelves give your kitchen a modern eye-catching look. The shelves are mostly located in handy and approachable mid areas of the kitchen walls and give the kitchen a unique look.

Pros –

  • Open shelving gives a more fresh and open airy look to the kitchen. Stuff doesn’t stay hidden behind a door, rather their presence makes the room actually look like a kitchen. Also, the items come easy and handy. It gives a classy decorated look to the kitchen.

Cons –

  • Looks –

It gives the kitchen a busy look. Every item being placed outside makes the room seem like an engaged one as a restaurant kitchen.

  • Privacy issues –

As there is no presence of cabinets, open shelves won’t be able to hide the unattractive and old faded dishes and appliances.

  • Maintenance problem –

As these are open shelves, frequent exposure to the air will lead to dust layering. Good maintenance as cleaning and dusting on a regular basis will be needed.

mississauga kitchen cabinets

Combination of standard cabinets and open shelves –

For the best use, new designs are preferably combining these two,

  • Installing Lower cabinets
  • Presence of a single shelf in a main area of the kitchen
  • custom kitchen cabinets Mississauga doors as glass doors
  • Floating, shallow, or extra-high upper cabinet designs
small bathroom renovations toronto
Home Improvement

Let’s Remodel your Bathroom from Beginning to the End

If you are thinking to neat up your bathroom, a bathroom alteration is simple means to do so. But how should you start the makeover?

Before you begin to alter your bathroom, chart out the renovating steps one by one to keep a track of what you are actually going to do.

How much will it cost?

To provide you with a rough idea about how much it will cost for small Bathroom Renovations Toronto; we have calculated average total cost of the entire process. With at least 20% being the budget of labor, $10,000-$15,000 is the average total cost.

But if you look forward to save as much as a few thousand dollars, you can think upon DIY method. Do not worry about how can you do such a laborious work all by yourself, we will guide you with it.

Preparations for your DIY Small Bathroom Renovation Toronto

bathroom renovations in Toronto

The groundwork involves setting up alteration design, and assembling remodeling tools and supplies.

Establishing Renovation Design

The first step towards Small Bathroom Renovations Toronto is to straighten out the sort of design that fits your visualization. You can decide upon these design rudiments to start your structuring process.

  • Color format- Choose the color of paint that must not be at odds with the color of tiles you are going to use to cover you bathroom floor.
  • Fresh Fittings- Make new fixes like replacing the shower or sink if necessary to add to your project.
  • Luggage Compartment Spaces- Make sure to have long storage space in your bathroom to keep accessories like towel.
  • Position of Utilities- Make precise measurements for electrical wiring and plumbing pipes otherwise they will end up demanding expensive repairs.

Gathering essential tools

  • Safety mask, gloves, goggles,
  • Caulking gun, hammer, Silicone sealant,
  • Tape measure, spackle knife, spackle,
  • Stud finder, power drill, pry bar,
  • Bucket, chisel, adjustable wrench,
  • Flathead screwdriver, hacksaw, utility knife,
  • Chalk line and extension cord

These were the tools which you should congregate before getting to effort.

Modifying the bathroom

small bathroom renovations in toronto

  1. Eliminate bathroom fixtures

Start by taking out toilet, eliminate the bath tub removing bath tile down to studs, take away the insulation without hammering, and remove cabinets, vanities, mirrors, tiles, and everything you want to replace.

  1. Set up your new shower

Choose from rectangular, square or pentangle tub.

  1. Install fresh fittings and elements
  2. Set down your new floor tiles
  3. Droop new drywall and begin to paint

Carry out this lengthy process of painting and provide your small bathroom renovation Toronto a new shape. Remember, always cover seams with drywall mud and tape, fill the gap, for shower, use cement board coated with redguard.

  1. Establish your new vanity and cabinets
  2. End up with hooking up the plumbing

Fix the toilet and provide your bathroom with an actual bathroom look.

  1. Add finishing touches

Put in trim around the rooms and mirrors to make it feel complete.

And now, as you have remodeled your bathroom successfully, you deserve to have a hot bath.



Home Improvement

Remodeling of the basement: 3 Important tips for success

Maybe the basement is the most precious untapped room in the house, just waiting for family activities and become a year-round haven. Considering that additions can increase the value of a home with more than 30 percent for every 1,000 square feet, the gold waiting in such an unfinished basement was worth unearning.

There are, of course, special considerations engaged in finishing the Markham basement renovation, but they’re not as much a problem as you might believe. Remodeling a basement room is simple with a little understanding and a wealth of basement-friendly construction products available now.markham basement renovation

Drain away basement dampness

Most people believe that it is not feasible to finish their Markham basement renovation owing to dampness or leakage problems in the cellar. That couldn’t go beyond reality! Any issues with humidity inside can mostly be solved by going outside, evaluating the drainage patterns of your home or correcting any kinks in the scheme that could send water to your cellar.

Everything begins on your roof, really–a primary water storage point in any rainstorm, large or small. A functional, excellently-maintained ongoing gutter system can take stuff in the correct direction, particularly if the roof surface has at least one downspout per 600 to 800 sq ft. Downspouts should stretch from the base of your home to release at least six to four feet.

basements in Markham

Form meets function

Converting your unused basement into a livable, pleasant completed basement room is an interesting prospect, but do not dig in so much as to undermine the utilities as well as other systems it houses once you finish the basement. Mechanical equipment including a stove, a heating system, a fuel oil tank, and well pump could be partially / cleanly concealed for aesthetic purposes, but totally sealing them off can prevent.

Design for living

You are now free to convert it into any living space you like with your basement dry, safe and warm. Whether you’re playing space or guest room, workshop and wine cellar, there’s plenty of finishing equipment to assist you to accomplish the required impact.

markham basement remodelling

Flooring is really the point of departure and there are many excellent underfoot choices. Engineered hardwood is among the latest additions,  and is designed to hold out moisture because it floats over plastic-sheet vapor barrier. Laminate is one more great choice for Markham basement renovation: it is durable, exactly a snap to install, and cost-efficient, thanks to lots of tongue-in-groove solutions that do not require nailing or gluing. Finally, Let’s speak about the color of the project to finish the cellar. Color helps identify the remodeling of the cellar and illuminates this underground room. So, think carefully about the colors that you apply to a wall, highlight via furniture and accessories, or even roll out with rugs throughout the region. If it comes to how you feel for your new room or how often you and your family are using it after the basement remodeling, they will make a difference. Thus following these few guidelines the room of yours will become awesome.

safeguard safes
Home Improvement

Why does safeguard safe is essential for my home or business?

Fire and theft outline a dangerous warning to both homes as well as business. Statistics determine that over the years, the possibilities of being burgled or the potential of a fire at your home or business are increasing at a frightening rate. It is vital to prepare against them. Invest in a fire and theft defender, and this will offer two kinds of defense, the first being the clear fire protection, and the second providing high resistance against theft and burglary.

Does fire rate safe protect cash and valuables?

Yes, however, we strongly recommend that you purchase a safeguard safe with a one-hour minimum fire rate certification as typically a safeguard with less fire rating than this may not provide sufficient security for paper or money in the event of a fire. The safe should also have a certification cash rating as this usually determines the value that is suggested to be stored in the safe overnight.


Can I store digital media devices or other sensitive items in my fire rated safeguard safe?

No. Data and media need more protection against heat, humidity, and moisture, therefore, must be stored in a Data and Media Safe. These safes are specifically intended to shield such items and are essential.


What is a fire rating?

Fire rated safes are the time (in minutes) that they can withstand intense heat. These are for safes that store flammable items like documents or electronics. A fire safeguard will not necessarily be theft safeguard and vice versa. Also, a data media fire resistant safe will not be suitable for storing papers, and a fire-resistant paper safe is not suitable for saving media devices.


What kind of lock should I use?

Digital locks offer biometric accessibility. It provides flexibility to use multiple users. It records a list of access and can be set to lock on a time delay. Combination security is less comfortable to use, but consistently reliable. No matter what you choose, you’ll be explained how to change your security code should you forget it. We suggest that you select an uncommon code that isn’t easy to guess and keep a record of it in a different place. In this way, if you failed to reset your safe, you would not have to call out a technician. Remember to keep your electric security device charged if it works on battery power.

safeguard safes Canada

How to ensure Safeguard safe maintenance and servicing?

To ensure your safe continues to supply the best level of security protecting your valuables, money and personal documents, it’s important that a routine maintenance and repair is conducted a minimum of once a year by one among our skilled and qualified safe technicians that have the talent information and experience to supply a whole service supported years of expertise.


What square measure a budget cheap safe adore for fire and theft protection?

Like everything, you get what you get hold of the cheapest safeguard safes will look sturdy and secure to the unknown customer, however, they sometimes provide very little or no fire and theft security and square measure typically relied on to defend your money and valuables. The bulk offers no skilled certification for his or her fire and money rating and a square measure designed with terribly skinny metal that may be quickly and simply cut open or pried open by straightforward hand cutting tools.

safeguard safe

You will sometimes store a number of the foremost vital things you own within the safe therefore make certain you get a skilled safe recommendation from one in every of our proficient and knowledgeable safe advisors which will assist you to choose a secure that caters for your level of necessities.